# Geological Engineering

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There are several courses spread out across the various years under department to make learning efficient. These are mostly course related subjects and topics of interest but interlased with a few indirectly related subjects to educate in various aspects in order to produce a versatile graduate. The Department offers a four-year programme leading to an award of BSc. Degree in Geological Engineering.

**DETAILED COURSE DESCRIPTION**

### First Year

**SEMESTER ONE**

**MATH 151 Algebra **

*Algebra I: * The set R of real numbers, Relation of order in R. principle of Mathematical induction. Complex numbers. *Analysis I: * Functions; odd, even and periodic function, hyperbola functions and their graphs. Co-ordinate geometry: conic sections in rectangular co-ordinates, parabola, ellipse, and hyperbola. Parametric equations: plane co-ordinates, polar curves. Differentiation: Rolle’s theorem, mean-value theorems.Taylor’s theorem. Repeated differentiation. Applications for differentiation. Indeterminate form. Vector algebra and its application.

**GED 151 Basic Geology **

The Earth: nature, composition, structure and age. Plate tectonics and continental drift. Rock-forming minerals: silicates. Rocks: Igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic. Surface processes: weathering, erosion, deposition, and landform development. Introduction to the Geology of Ghana.

**CE 153 Engineering Technology**

Knowledge and uses of Construction equipment: caterpillars, bulldozers, scrapers, dumpers, and mixer. House Wiring: Types of switches, wires, light, fans, heaters, fridge, air conditioners. Automobile checklists and Computer parts. Hands on experience of welding and threading of bolts.

**CE 151 Elementary Structures **

Basic principles of rigid statics. Statically determinate structures: simple supported beams, cantilevers, pin-jointed frames and structures, trusses (method of joints and method of sections). Arches. Cables. Influence lines. Analysis of mass structures.

**ME 159 Technical Drawing **

Introduction to drawing instruments and materials. Geometrical construction. Principles of tangency. Loci of points. Projections: classification based on distance on source and number of views.

**ME 161 Basic Mechanics **

Fundamental Concepts:Newton’s laws of motion; force systems and characteristics of forces; moments of a force; vector representation of forces and moments. Basic Statics: Equilibrium of rigid bodies in two and three dimensions structural Analysis: Method of Joints and Method of Sections. Friction. Simple Machines. Basic dynamics of particles; basic dynamics of rigid bodies; simple harmonic motion.

**ENGL 157 Communication Skills**

**SEMESTER TWO**

**MATH 152 Calculus with Analysis **

*Algebra II*: Matrix algebra: determinants and their properties. Applications to systems of linear equations, homogeneous systems. Eigen value and Eigen vectors. *Analysis II*: Series: convergence of series of real numbers, tests of convergence, series of functions and power series, convergence of power series. Integration, including advanced methods of substitution, partial fractions by parts and reduction formulae. Applications: Improper integral: convergence, partial differentiation, and total derivations.** **

**GED 152 Basic Mineral Science **

Introduction to metals, minerals and their ores: Ferrous and ferro-alloy metals, non-ferrous metals and their ore minerals, mineral materials for the construction and manufacturing industries. Activities involved in obtaining minerals and metals from the earth: mineral exploration, mining, mineral processing, extractive metallurgy and physical metallurgy. Mineral Processing: crushing, grinding, commercial screening and classification, mineral concentration and dewatering; ore dressing practices; efficiency of concentration operations: two-product formula; pulp density; cynidation.

**GED 154 Introduction to Information Technology **

Definition, use, and classification of Computers. Operational components of a computer. Types of Secondary (or Backing) storage. Dynamics of the storage disk. Computer Software. Computer Applications: Word Processing, Spreadsheet, Database, and Presentation.

**CE 156 Elementary Fluid Mechanics **

Fundamental concepts in fluid mechanics. Characteristics and properties of fluids. Fluid statics. Basic equation of hydrostatics, Pressure distribution in static and constant accelerating fluid, hydrostatic force on plane and curved surfaces immersed in static fluid, floating bodies and buoyancy, continuity equation (differential and integral form); Kinematics of fluid motion: Velocity, acceleration, streamlines, steam-tubes, particle paths, streak lines; Definition of irrotational and rotational flow; Circulation; Stream function and velocity potential function for flow in a uniform stream and due to source, sink and doublet and simple combinations of these.

**EE 152 Basic Electronics **

Nature of the Atom. Vacuum valves (diode, triode, tetrode, pentode); Basic concepts of semiconductors; charge carriers; Effective mass. Mobility. Conductivity. Life time and recombination. Continuity equations. Flow equations. Hall effects. PN junctions; Choke. Rectification and filtration; Bipolar transistors. Characteristics, CB, CC, CE configurations. The transistor as a switching device (ac-dc load lines), Small signal amplifiers.

**CE 164 Civil Engineering Drawing **

Introduction to Drawing: Basic Concepts and types; Structural Drawings: Drawing basic structural elements in reinforced concrete buildings, General arrangement and detailing of foundations, columns, beams, Slabs and staircases; Basic Highway Drawings: Vertical and horizontal alignments sections, Contours.

**ENGL 158 Communication Skills II**

### Second Year

**SEMESTER ONE**

**MATH 251 Differential Equations **

*Analysis III:* (pre-requisite: algebra I & II, Analysis II). Differentiation under the integral sign: multiple integrals, line, surface & volume integrals. Triple scale and vector products: differentiation of vectors: vector fields. *Differential Equations I*: (pre-requisite: Analysis II). Ordinary differential equations. First-order differential equations. Second order differential equations. Systems of liner equations with constant coefficients.Laplace transforms.

**GED 251 Mineralogy **

Chemistry and physics of rock-forming minerals. Classification and description of rock-forming minerals. Origin, mode of occurrence and association of minerals. Recovery and uses of minerals. Optical Mineralogy.

**GED 253 Physical Geology **

Basic geological structures: Morphology of structures such as faults and fractures, folds, foliations, lineation and fabric. Their recognition on maps and the field. Geological map interpretation: Geological and topographic maps; rock structure on maps; structural sections; construction of outcrop patterns; three point problems; exercises. General principles of Geological Field Mapping and basic geological mapping techniques.

**GED 255 Photogeology **

Application of aerial photographs and other remote sensing techniques in geo-mapping for Engineering Geology, Geodynamics and Hydrogeology.** **

**CE 257 Computer Programming **

Delphiand Visual Basic Programming: Visual Basic Concepts, Designing programmes, programme flow, testing and debugging, functions, arrays, interacting with the user, interacting with the system.

**CE 251 ****Strength of Materials **

Stresses and strain in one dimensional structural elements: lateral strain and Poisson’s ratio, strain energy from normal stress and shear; temperature stresses; plastic stress: strain behaviour of material, properties of areas, moments of area; element subjected to general stresses and strain in two-dimensional structural systems: Principal stresses and strains, strains energy from normal and shear stresses, Mohr’s stress circle, Mohr’s strain circle; relationships between the elastic constants bending in beams: the bending relationship, the general case of bending, asymmetrical or skew beading, combined bending and axial loading; Shear stresses in beams: shear stress in open and closed sections and shear centre; Composite beams: beading and shear stresses in beams of dissimilar materials.

**CE 255 Theory of Structures **

Analysis of continuous structures such as rigid frames, continuous or fixed end beams: area-moment theorems, Conjugate beams, Three-Moment Theorem; Analysis of space frames by tension coefficients method.** **Clark-Maxwell’s reciprocal theorem; virtual work; influence lines for pin-jointed frames; deflection of frames by energy method.

**SEMESTER TWO**

**MATH 252 Calculus with Several Variables **

Analysis IV*: *(pre-requisite: Algebra I & II, Differentiation of implicit functions. Extrema. Gamma and beta functions. Functions of complex variables. Conformable mapping. Contour integration. *Differential Equations II* (prerequisite: Differential equations I). Solutions in series; Fourier series. Classification of second order liner partial differential equations and reductions to canonical forms. Solutions of simple boundary problems by separation of variables.

**GED 252 Stratigraphy **

Stratigraphic Column – Early and modern classifications; Stratigraphic procedures; sedimentary paleontology; sedimentary tectonics, Stratigraphic maps.

**CE 256 Fluid Mechanics **

Dynamics of fluid flow; Equation of motion: Euler’s equation. Energy equation (first law of thermodynamics) –Bernoulli’s equation for ideal fluid and its modifications, Velocity correction factor, The momentum equation: Linear momentum, moment of momentum (angular momentum); Viscous flow: Boundary layers, definition of displacement and momentum thickness, form parameter, skin friction coefficient, boundary layer momentum equation; Laminar boundary layers, application of momentum equation to give friction coefficient on a flat plate; Turbulent boundary layer, power law and logarithmic velocity distribution, laminar sub layer, skin friction coefficient on a flat plate. Effect of roughness- rough and smooth pipes; Descriptive knowledge of the nature of turbulence; Laminar flow between plates (pressure gradient); Incompressible viscous flow in pipes: Head losses, local, linear Darcy Weisbach equation; Moody diagram and its user; Particle mechanics. Behaviour of single particles in fluids, Stokes law, the drag coefficient, dependence of the drag coefficient upon Reynolds number, terminal velocity.

**CE 260 Soil and Rock Mechanics **

Engineering classification of soils and rocks (mass and material). Basic properties of soils and rocks (index tests), compaction characteristics of soils, point load and uniaxial compressive strength of rocks. Deformability of soils and rocks: triaxial and shear box. Failure criteria: Mohr, Coulomb, Griffith.** **

**GED 254 Rock Mechanics **

Introduction to rock mechanics, definitions of basic terms; Mechanical properties of rocks – Types of samples for testing; Stress and strain analyses – Stress analysis, fractures in rocks, strain analysis, stress-strain relations (elastic behaviour); Elastic properties of rocks – modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio in rocks and rock mass; Theories of failure-Coulomb-Nervier theory, tensile strain criterion, Mohr’s theory; Strain measurement; Griffith’s theory of brittle fracture.

**GE 282 Large Scale Surveying **

Principles and construction of theodolite and levels. Permanent adjustment of theodolite and levels. Distance measurement: taping, optical, EDM. Angular measurements. Traverse computations and adjustments. Area computations and subdivisions of plots. Spirit and trigonometrical leveling. Introduction to triangulation, trilateration, resection, intersection and radiation as methods for provision of controls. Introduction to GPS.

### Third year

**SEMESTER ONE**

**MATH 351 Numerical Methods **

Finite differences: Difference tables, forward, backward and central differences; Linear systems: Matrix methods, Gaussian elimination. Gauss-Seidel, ill–conditioning; Errors: Sources, estimates, propagation, floating point arithmetic; Operators; Curve fitting; Interpolation: Lagrange, Newton’s forward and backward; Euler and Runge-Kuta methods; Collation polynomials; Newton-Raphson.** **

**MATH 351 Probability and Statistics **

Introduction to probability. Random variables and functions of random variables. Mathematical expectations and moments. Spatial, discrete and continuous distribution: binomial, exponential, gamma, chi-square, t- and F-sums of random variables. Law of large numbers. Central limit theorem.

**GED 351 Petrology **

Magmatic, Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks: General petrologic concepts; petrogenesis and theories of the evolution of rock; petrographic principles; field and laboratory classification, description and textural characteristics of rocks relevant to engineering problems.

**GED 353** **Mining Principles **

Overview of mining methods. Morphology and structure of mineral/ore deposits: pipes, tabular deposits, ladder, lenticular, and saddle back deposits, isometric orebodies. Underground and surface mine development: shafts, drives, crosscuts, winzes, raises, ore and waste passes. Excavation technology: mechanical methods including tunnel boring and raise boring machines; blasthole drills: surface (bench) blast design, full face blasting, controlled blasting. Earthmoving equipment – excavation, loading, and haulage units. Mining environment and control of mine atmosphere.

**GED 355 Engineering Geology I **

Definition and scope of Engineering Geology. Engineering geological characterization and classification of rocks and soils. Rock weathering and engineering implications. Effect of water on the performance of rock and soil masses. Engineering geological maps and plans.

**GED 357 Basic Hydrology **

Introduction to Hydrology: Hydrologic cycle, water balance equation, practical values of hydrology and hydrologic failures, etc. Precipitation: types and variations of precipitation, measurement of precipitation, analysis of precipitation data, and estimation of missing data. Evaporation: factors affecting evaporation from free water surface, seasonal and aerial variations of evapotranspiration, and measurement of potential and actual evapotranspiration. Infiltration: factors affecting infiltration (i.e., rainfall characteristics, soil surface condition, and characteristic of the infiltrating water), methods of determining infiltration, and storage and movement of soil moisture. Runoff: sources and components of runoff, factors affecting total volume and distribution of runoff, drainage patterns, hydrograph analysis, and measurement, estimation and prediction of runoff.

**GED 359 Computer Applications **

Vector and Bitmap Graphics. Computer Aided Design. Application of geo-softwares: Surfer, etc.

**CE 359 Soil Mechanics **

One-Dimensional Flow: Introductory concepts. Darcy’s experiment, flow velocities, heads, downward flow, inclined flow, flow through multiple media. Effective Stress in soils with fluid flow, seepage force, quick condition, Two-Dimensional Flow: Introductory concepts (flow lines, equipotential lines, flow net). Basic equations of flow in soil. Calculation of quantities of flow. Uplift forces. Permeability: Factors influencing value, Laboratory determination of permeability, Field determination of permeability. One Dimensional Consolidation: Physics of consolidation, One-dimensional consolidation equation, solution of consolidation equation, Oedometer test. Stress Distribution: Effect of concentrated loads (Boussinesq, Westergaard), Effect of uniformly distributed load, influence chart, rectangular loaded area, contact pressure distribution. Calculation of Settlement.

**SEMESTER TWO**

**GED 352 Principles of Geochemistry **

The subject of geochemistry: history of geochemistry as its application in other fields of study. Evolution of the geosphere: biosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere. Basic geochemical principles; geochemical reservoirs and cycles. Distribution of elements: the periodic classification, elements distribution in geological materials, geochemical classification. Oxidation potentials and Eh-pH diagrams. Geochemical data types, analytical methods and uses. Basic principles of geochemistry in mineral exploration.

**GED 354 Principles of Geophysics **

Introduction to Geophysics. Basic principles of geophysical exploration. Gravity method. Magnetic method. Seismic methods: refraction and reflection. Geoelectric methods; sounding and profiling. Electromagnetic methods. Radiometric methods. Borehole geophysical logging. Integrated geophysical methods applied to hydrogeology and engineering geology: Techniques and analysis. Correlation between geophysical data and hydrodynamic properties of the aquifer. Rippability. Bedrock topography delineation. Fracture index determination. Instrumentation: field procedures, cost-benefit analysis.

**GED 366 Mineral Economics and Evaluation **

Fundamental concepts and definitions. Processes leading to the discovery and successful exploitation of a mineral deposit. Basic mineral rights issues. Mine Sampling. Ore reserve/resource computations: average grade calculations along boreholes, channel sample grades, and evaluation of blocked reserves. Geometrical methods of ore estimation including inverse distance weighting methods. Operational efficiencies and computations for grade control: metallurgical recovery, tonnage factor, mine call factor, extraction ratio, ore dilution and cut off grades. Ore resource/reserve classification. Company formation and capitalization. Costs and cost estimation procedures. Depreciation of mining assets and capital allowance. Preparation of cashflows and mine Investment appraisal methods, including Payback, NPV and IRR.

**GED 358 GIS & Remote Sensing **

Principles and concepts of geographic information systems (GIS). Principles of remote sensing. Understanding and skills in databases** **management. Introduction to ArcView, ArcGIS, ILWIS, etc.

**GED 362 Geological Field Mapping **

Rock sample preparation Laboratory study of rocks. Analysis of structural geological data. Drawing of geological map, profile and cross section. Geological report preparation.

**GED 364 Structural Geology **

Introduction: definition of structural geology, relevance of structural geology in other branches of geology, stress analysis and strain analysis. Primary geological structures: cross bedding, graded bedding, ripple marks, sole marks, load cast unconformities, etc. Secondary geological structures: joints, faults, folds, foliations, etc.

Plate tectonic: structures associated with converging, diverging and transform plate boundaries. Structural data analyses using stereographic projection and DIPS software.

**CE 360 Foundation Engineering **

Earth Pressure: Rankine’s theory, earth pressure coefficients, earth pressure distribution, effects of ground water, surcharge, sloping surface. Coulomb’s approach, active earth pressure, passive earth pressure, effect of wall friction. Retaining walls: design, types of retaining walls, proportioning, calculation of forces, design criteria. Sheet pile walls: cantilever, anchored sheet pile walls. Slope stability: Types of slope failures, Concept of factor of safety, Methods of slope stability analysis: Method of moments, method of slices (Fellenius, simplified Bishop, etc.), Stability coefficients; Types of stability analysis: short term, long term; Remedial measures for slopes; slope design (natural slopes, cuts in natural soils, embankments). Bearing capacity; Behavior of footings on ideal and real soils, Failure mechanisms; Bearing capacity equations: Terzaghi, Meyerhoff. Gross and net foundation pressure, allowable stress. Stress distribution due to eccentric loading. General bearing capacity equation, shape factors, inclination factors, effect of water table, local shear failure, undrained conditions. Foundation design: Types of foundations: Shallow versus deep foundations. Types of footing. Design criteria for footings.

### Fourth Year

**SEMESTER ONE**

**GED 451 Regional Geology **

Historical geology ofAfricaand the World by eras with emphasis on interpretation of stratigraphic and structural problems. The stratigraphy and geological formations ofGhana. The controversies about the age of the Dahomeyan, Birimian classifications and stratigraphic relations in the Birimian and Tarkwaian. The Eburnien Thermo-tectonic Event and the granitoid complexes. Metallogeny of the Birimian; mineral deposits and industrial minerals ofGhana.

**GED 455/456 Hydrogeology I/II **

Origin and occurrence of groundwater, Groundwater flow; evaporation of ground water, Groundwater abstraction; Well hydraulics, aquifer test, groundwater chemistry, saline water encroachment; Groundwater resources and evaluation; Groundwater pollution/protection.

**GED 457/458 Project I/II **** **

Technical report writing. Supervised research work by students on problems in the geosciences and engineering.

**GED 461 Exploration Geochemistry **

Basic principles and concepts. Geochemical survey types (rock, soil, drainage, etc.). Sample types, methods and analysis. Treatment of exploration geochemical data and principles of interpretation. General procedures of a geochemical survey. Geochemical exploration in regolith terrain and for special commodities e.g. gold, diamonds, etc.

**GED 453 Engineering Geology II **

Ground investigation: principles and techniques. Geology and Dams/Reservoirs. Geology and Road/Airfield pavement construction. Tropical Slope Design. Case histories.

**GED 459 Exploration Geophysics **

Survey procedures, data processing and interpretation techniques of resistivity, seismic, gravity, magnetic, electromagnetic, radiometric and borehole geophysics. Applications of geophysical techniques in hydrogeology, engineering geology and mineral prospecting.** **

**CE 477 Geotechnical Engineering I **

Site Investigation: Introduction, timing, nature, components, preliminary experience, detailed sub-surface exploration; methods permitting visual examination; in-situ examination, sampling, types of boring field testing, borehole testing, non-borehole testing, geophysical exploration, reporting; Deep Foundation: Piles and Piled Foundations, Classification of piles, Material, Methods of load transfer, Method of construction, Load carrying capacity of piles, Static methods and dynamic methods, Settlement of single piles, Settlement of pile groups, Drilled caissons; Stability Of Excavations: Earth pressure on braced excavations Stability of excavations in soils; Tropical Soils: Introduction to unsaturated soils, Engineering implications of tropical weathering; Rock Slope Stability Analysis: Rock strength and yield, Time dependency, Discontinuities in Rocks, Behaviour of Rock Masses; Environmental impact assessment.

** SEMESTER 2**

**GED 452 Advanced Engineering Geology **

Site investigation drilling, sampling, logging, testing, etc. Geotechnical processes: -compaction, cut-off, etc. Dams: -structure, design and construction; Construction materials: - aggregates, building stones, etc. Terrain evaluation, rock weathering, Rock as construction material, Mass movement; specialised topics: Applications -dams and reservoirs, highways, pavements, airfield, etc.

**GED 454 Environmental Geology **

Influence of geology on the environment: Regional and urban planning. Geologic hazards associated with waste disposal, earthquakes, mass movements, land degradation, flooding, problematic soils, mining and quarrying; Environmental impact assessments. Impacts of geologic materials and processes on human health.** **

**GED 462 Economic Geology **

Theories of ore genesis: Syngenetic versus epigenetic hypotheses. Basic principles of formation of ore deposits. Source, transportation and deposition. Classification of mineral deposits. Important mineral associations and types. Mineral deposits ofGhana.

**CE 478 Ground Engineering (Elective) **

*Foundation Problems in Ghana*: Expansive soils, identification of expansive soils; Earthquake Engineering: The geophysics of earthquakes, intensity, magnitude, Geotechnical site response to earthquakes; Earth and Rock Filled Dams: Introduction, factors influencing choice of cross-section, site investigation and materials survey, Design criteria, foundation treatment*; Environmental Geotechnics*: Geotechnical considerations for siting of landfills;* Geological Aspects of Groundwater Recovery*: Hydrologic cycle, groundwater flow and inter-relationship between ground water and surface water, Measurement of groundwater levels and permeability during site investigations; ground water reservoirs, recharge-artificial and induced and groundwater pollution, groundwater abstraction, subsidence and sea water intrusion, Geotechnical problems associated with ground water; Environmental impact assessment.

**GED 464 Engineering Management **

Understanding the Production of Wealth and Income. Basic definition and functions of management. Management of natural resources. Factors of production. Introduction to Corporate governance: Company formation and capitalization; capital gearing. Organizational structure. The growth or expansion of businesses: Types of, and motives for, capitalistic combination including mergers and acquisitions of corporate entities. Mine taxation. Time and motion studies for job planning. Introduction to project management. Conventional scheduling using critical-path-method, precedence and arrow networks, Gantt charts, and time-cost trade-off. Topics in organizational theory: motivation, and job satisfaction, pay systems and incentive schemes, organizational structure and labour relations. Management of contract agreements.

**GED 466 Petroleum Geology (Elective) **

Physical properties, geochemistry, origin, migration, accumulation, and history of oil and natural gas, and their associated waters. Geological conditions of oil and gas entrapment. Structural and stratigraphic factors controlling their distribution in reservoir rocks, porosity (primary and secondary), permeability and fluid saturation. Environmental problems associated with the development of hydrocarbons. The concepts of geology that are important to petroleum exploration and exploitation. Geological setting of the West African petroleum basin. Oil and gas sources, reservoir properties, well evaluation, reservoir development, efficient recovery, reserves determination, and reservoir characterization.** **

**GED 468 Geostatistics (Elective) **

Basic Statistical consideration; Introduction to Geostatistical Language; Typical Problems and their Geostatistical Approach; Theory of Regionalized Variable; Variogram Models and their Fitting and The Theory of Kriging.